Smart Accounts

Basically, the smart account is an account with attached transactions checking script. In other words, a script which is attached to an account so the account can validate every transaction before confirming it.
An account can be restricted with any outgoing transaction based on:

  • Signatures and other supplied data
  • Proofs
  • Current blockchain height
  • An arbitrary data existing in a blockchain, like data from Oracles, which post the data via DataTransaction.

Set Script to an Account

In order to setup an Smart Account, The account needs to issue SetScriptTransaction which contains the predicate. Upon success, every outgoing transaction will be validated not by the default mechanism of signature validation, but according to the predicate logic.
AccountScript can be changed or cleared if the script installed allows the new SetScriptTransaction to process.
The default account has no script, which is equivalent to this script:

sigVerify(tx.bodyBytes, tx.proofs[0], tx.senderPk)

Note. SetScriptTransaction sets the script which verifies all outgoing transactions. The set script can be changed by another SetScriptTransaction call unless it’s prohibited by a previous set script.

Script Costs

We conducted performance tests for all aspects of our scripts. For this purpose, we developed an benchmark subproject with JMH, that computes a complexity of scripts after compilation phase by AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) traversal in special complexity units. Complexity units is a measure of the script's relative cost: we found out the most expensive operation in terms of computational complexity and defined it equal to 100 complexity units. The most expensive functions:

  • fromBase58String / toBase58String
  • sigVerify

In every test, we conducted 10 tests and calculated the average cost.

As a result, We define the following constraint for a script cost:

  • A script must have a size no more 8 kB.
  • The fixed cost for each scripted unit is equal to 400000 wavelets (Waves coins, 100000000 wavelets = 1 Wave).


  • If transaction's usual cost is 0.001 WAVES, in case of smart scripting exactly the same transaction will be cost 0.001 + 0.004 WAVES.
  • Set Alias for an account without a script would cost 0.001 WAVES, whereas for a Smart Account it would be 0.001+0.004=0.005 WAVES.

Note. All minimal transactions fees can be found here.

Trading With Smart Accounts


The feature of trading with smart account Scripts provides the ability to validate ExchangeTransaction and Orders.

When an exchange transaction broadcasts to the UTX Pool and then to the blockchain:

  • Orders are checked by traders’ account scripts (in case they are smart).
  • Exchange Transaction is checked by transaction sender’s (Matcher’s) script account if it’s set.

Waves also added trader’s script check in Matcher. When it receives an order from a smart account, it executes the script for the order.

Fee Calculation Rules for Trading

  • Smart Accounts don’t pay extra 0.004 for Order placements.
  • Exchange Transaction’s fee is not increased by +0.004 if any of the accounts is a Smart Account.
  • If the matcher is a Smart Account(has a script) then the fee for the matcher is increased by 0.004.


1. An account can trade only with BTC:

let cooperPubKey = base58'BVqYXrapgJP9atQccdBPAgJPwHDKkh6A8'
let BTCId = base58'8LQW8f7P5d5PZM7GtZEBgaqRPGSzS3DfPuiXrURJ4AJS'
match tx {
   case o: Order =>
      sigVerify(tx.bodyBytes, tx.proofs[0], cooperPubKey ) && (o.assetPair.priceAsset == BTCId || o.assetPair.amountAsset == BTCId)
   case _ => sigVerify(tx.bodyBytes, tx.proofs[0], cooperPubKey )

2. Buy back custom asset on specified price in WAVES:

let myAssetId = base58'BVqYXrapgJP9atQccdBPAgJPwHDKkh6B9'
let cooperPubKey = base58'BVqYXrapgJP9atQccdBPAgJPwHDKkh6A8'

match tx {
   case o: Order =>
      o.assetPair.priceAsset == base58'' && o.assetPair.amountAsset == myAssetId && o.price == 500000 && o.amount == 1000 && o.orderType == Buy
   case _ => sigVerify(tx.bodyBytes, tx.proofs[0], cooperPubKey )


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